At the Demonstration
* Demonstrator Rights, Police Rights
* New York Demonstrations
* Civil Disobedience and Arrest
Demonstrator Rights, Police Rights
The First Amendment permits speech, however controversial, in "public forums" (streets, sidewalks, parks, plazas and, in contemporary times, shopping malls). The protected expression includes "symbolic speech" such as wearing masks, candlelight vigils, and, of course, flag-burning.
While the government and the police may not restrict the content of the speech (including, for example, vulgarities directed at the police), they may impose reasonable "time, place and manner" restrictions on speech. Thus, for example, the police may control the demonstration to keep it from endangering public safety or order. And in New York City there are ordinances against demonstrations too close to churches, counsellates, hospital and certain other buildings.
Generally a speaker cannot be prevented from provoking or exciting a crowd. However, if a speaker provokes a crowd to the point of causing property damage or personal injury (Incitement to Riot) or of another violation of the law, she or he can and certainly will be stopped by the police.
Potential demonstrators often ask "can the police do this...." referring to a particular type of restriction on demonstrating. The correct legal answer often boils down to whether or not the restriction is a reasonable time, place or manner restriction under the circumstances -- something a judge might have to decide later on if there happens to be a trial on the matter. However, the practical answer to the potential demonstrator's hypothetical is that if the police feel like it, they can and will do what they want and worry about the legal consequences later.
If a demonstrator believes her or his speech rights are being violated by a police officer, the matter should be brought to the attention of the legal observor, if there is one, or the demonstration organizer. If those options are not available, it may help to politely but firmly request to speak to the officer in charge. Often, however, that is the officer who ordered the action in the first place. Arguing with the particular police officer will rarely change the officer's mind. Refusing to obey the officer will usually result in an arrest.
New York Demonstrations
There is no right or wrong way to demonstrate -- the demo should be conducted in a way to best highlight the political issues involved. However, in New York City the police appear to be increasingly permitting less vareity and spontaneity in demonstrations. If the demonstration is on a city sidewalk the police will usually contruct a pen with barricades within which they will confine stationary demonstrators. Often these pens are a block or more from the actual site being protested. Demonstrators that march will be required to stay on the sidewalk and not completely block the sidewalk. The courts will uphold most partial restrictions on the right to demonstrate in the name of serving the public's right to such things such as the free flow of pedestrian and vehicular traffic, and safety.
Most demonstrations are stationary, within the police barricades. Demonstrators may hold signs, but in New York City the police prohibit signs on wooden sticks, requiring that the signs be held up by cardboard tubes. Sound devices are generally allowed only with a sound permit. Chanting is permitted but if the demonstration is close to a hospital, counsellate or government building the police will probably move it away so the occupants are not disturbed.
Civil Disobedience and Arrest
The usual civil disobedience features members of the demonstration blocking building entrances or traffic and being arrested. Typically, shortly after the cd begins, the police officer in charge will stand in front of the demonstrators and give a warning to cease the action while the other officers, brandishing handcuffs, encircle the demonstrators. When the demonstrators persist, the arrests begin and the arrestees are taken to police vans for transport to a precinct.
A member of the group should monitor the arrests, maintain a list of the persons arrested, take note of any unreasonable force by the police, and be prepared to go to the police precinct to ensure the arrestees' release.
In transport to, and at the precinct, arrestees should refrain from discussing the demonstration with the police. While persons arrested should be cooperative about giving their name, address, job, and like information for the purpose of securing their release, there is nothing to be gained from discussing the incident. If you do it, as they say on TV, everything you say can and will be used against you in court. (See "You're Under Arrest" by Ronald Kuby and William Kunstler.)
At the precinct the arrestees are written up and usually released. If a person is charged with resisting arrests, fingerprints may be taken, which slows the process considerably since it takes approximately three hours for the results of the fingerprint search to be returned to the precinct. An arrestee may or may not be given a phone call. If there are any felony charges, the demonstrator will not be released. Persons released receive either a "Summons" (which looks like a parking ticket) or a "DAT" (Desk Appearance Ticket) which state the date and place of the court appearance for the charge. In New York the charges cannot be resolved at the precinct.
Civil Disobedience Index