Consensus Decision Making
What is consensus?
Consensus is a process for group
decision-making. It is a method by which an entire group of people
can come to an agreement. The input and ideas of all participants
are gathered and synthesized to arrive at a final decision acceptable
to all. Through consensus, we are not only working to achieve
better solutions, but also to promote the growth of community
Consensus vs. voting
Voting is a means by which we
choose one alternative from several. Consensus, on the other hand,
is a process of synthesizing many diverse elements together.
Voting is a win or lose model, in which people are more often concerned with the numbers it takes to "win" than with the issue itself. Voting does not take into account individual feelings or needs. In essence, it is a quantitative, rather than qualitative, method of decision-making.
With consensus people can and should work through differences and reach a mutually satisfactory position. It is possible for one person's insights or strongly held beliefs to sway the whole group. No ideas are lost, each member's input is valued as part of the solution.
A group committed to consensus may utilize other forms of decision making (individual, compromise, majority rules) when appropriate; however, a group that has adopted a consensus model will use that process for any item that brings up a lot of emotions, is something that concerns people's ethics, politics, morals or other areas where there is much investment.
What does consensus mean?
Consensus does not mean that everyone
thinks that the decision made is necessarily the best one possible,
or even that they are sure it will work. What it does mean is
that in coming to that decision, no one felt that her/his position
on the matter was misunderstood or that it wasn't given a proper
hearing. Hopefully, everyone will think it is the best decision;
this often happens because, when it works, collective intelligence
does come up with better solutions than could individuals.
Consensus takes more time and member skill, but uses lots of resources before a decision is made, creates commitment to the decision and often facilitates creative decision. It gives everyone some experience with new processes of interaction and conflict resolution, which is basic but important skill-building. For consensus to be a positive experience, it is best if the group has 1) common values, 2) some skill in group process and conflict resolution, or a commitment to let these be facilitated, 3) commitment and responsibility to the group by its members and 4) sufficient time for everyone to participate in the process.
Forming the consensus proposals
During discussion a proposal for resolution is put forward. It is amended and modified through more discussion,